what were the spanish soldiers who conquered the americas called

It was translated quickly to English and became the basis for the anti-Spanish writings, collectively known as the Black Legend. e. [66] The office of captain general involved to be the supreme military chief of the whole territory and he was responsible for recruiting and providing troops, the fortification of the territory, the supply and the shipbuilding. Lockhart, James. Conquistador Hernán Cortés went to present-day Mexico in 1519. [29][30][31][32] But not until the Spanish conquest of Peru was the conquest of the Aztecs matched in scope by the victory over the Inca empire in 1532. They were not a standing army in the sense that we think of it. The pope was the head of the Catholic Church, but the granting of the Patronato Real to the Spanish monarchy gave the king the power of appointment (patronage) of ecclesiastics. There were few Spaniards and huge indigenous populations, so utilizing indigenous intermediaries was a practical solution to the incorporation of the indigenous population into the new regime of rule. Dominican friar Antonio de Montesinos denounced Spanish cruelty and abuse in a sermon in 1511, which comes down to us in the writings of Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas. They were initially a scarce commodity, but horse breeding became an active industry. 4, p. 204. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, p.89. In the Huancavelica region, mercury continues to wreak ecological damage.[135][136][137]. Tags: ... American History: Conquest (European Exploration) 1.5k plays . Hernán Cortés requested Franciscan and Dominican friars be sent to New Spain immediately after the conquest of Tenochtitlan to begin evangelization. Ultimately, the kingdom became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada first in 1717 and permanently in 1739. There are countless accounts of Spaniards torturing and murdering natives to obtain the location of the gold. They were soldiers, but unarmed. Cushner, Nicolas P. “Argentina: The Colonial Period” in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. Crown approval through the Council of the Indies was needed for the establishment of bishoprics, building of churches, appointment of all clerics. [149] The similarly epic and dark journey of Lope de Aguirre was made into a film by Werner Herzog, Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972), starring Klaus Kinsky. ... What were the Spanish soldiers who conquered the Americas called? Their central official and ceremonial area was built on top of Aztec palaces and temples. [124][125] When the formal institution of the Inquisition was established in 1571, indigenous peoples were excluded from its jurisdiction on the grounds that they were neophytes, new converts, and not capable of understanding religious doctrine. In central Mexico, there exist minutes of the sixteenth-century meetings in Nahuatl of the Tlaxcala cabildo. The Spanish conquest of Yucatán, the Spanish conquest of Guatemala, the conquest of the Tarascans/Purépecha of Michoacan, the war of Mexico's west, and the Chichimeca War in northern Mexico expanded Spanish control over territory and indigenous populations. [33], Between 1537 and 1543, six[citation needed] Spanish expeditions entered highland Colombia, conquered the Muisca Confederation, and set up the New Kingdom of Granada (Spanish: Nuevo Reino de Granada). He was not only given no assistance in the struggle against foreign diseases, but was prevented from adopting even the most elementary measures to secure his food, clothing, and shelter. [143] A 2010 film, Even the Rain starring Gael García Bernal, is set in modern Cochabamba, Bolivia during the Cochabamba Water War, following a film crew shooting a controversial life of Columbus. Conquistadors left their marks culturally as well. Conquistadors came from all over Europe. In Mexico, the Hernán Cortés and the men of his expedition founded of the port town of Veracruz in 1519 and constituted themselves as the town councilors, as a means to throw off the authority of the governor of Cuba, who did not authorize an expedition of conquest. c. Christopher Columbus sailed west in order to find Asia. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp. [56] Ecclesiastics also functioned as administrators overseas in the early Caribbean period, particularly Frey Nicolás de Ovando, who was sent to investigate the administration of Francisco de Bobadilla, the governor appointed to succeed Christopher Columbus. [24][25][26], The capture of the Aztec emperor Moctezuma II by Cortés was not a brilliant stroke of innovation, but came from the playbook that the Spanish developed during their period in the Caribbean. Officers and horsemen got a larger cut than foot soldiers, as did crossbowmen, harquebusiers, and artillerymen. The Spanish took advantage of a recent civil war between the factions of the two brothers Emperor Atahualpa and Huáscar, and the enmity of indigenous nations the Incas had subjugated, such as the Huancas, Chachapoyas, and Cañaris. Important ones include Santiago de Guatemala (1524); Puebla (1531); Querétaro (ca. The structure of the hierarchy was in many ways parallel to that of civil governance. The laws were the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of Spanish settlers in the Americas, particularly with regards to treatment of native Indians in the institution of the encomienda. In the early 19th century, the Spanish American wars of independence resulted in the secession and subsequent division of most Spanish territories in the Americas, except for Cuba and Puerto Rico, which were finally lost to The United States in 1898, following the Spanish–American War. Defender of the Indies Fray Bartolomé de las Casas listed many of them in his "Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies." [77] These elites played an intermediary role between the Spanish rulers and indigenous commoners. However, noblemen became defenders of the rights to land and water controlled by their communities. [76], The conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires ended their sovereignty over their respective territorial expanses, replaced by the Spanish Empire. These diseases would ultimately kill as much as 90% of the native population of the Americas. Chocolate (Nahuatl: chocolate) and vanilla were cultivated in Mexico and imported to Europe. Cane sugar imported from the Old World was the high value, low bulk export product that became the bulwark of tropical economies of the Caribbean islands and coastal Tierra Firme (the Spanish Main), as well as Portuguese Brazil. After several attempts to set up independent states in the 1810s, the kingdom and the viceroyalty ceased to exist altogether in 1819 with the establishment of Gran Colombia. Best was gold, but silver was found in abundance. The first two were in the Alto Perú, present-day Bolivia, at Charcas (present day Sucre, May 25), and La Paz (July 16); and the third in present-day Ecuador at Quito (August 10). The British Empire offered support, wanting to end the Spanish monopoly on trade with its colonies in the Americas. [141] Christopher Columbus: The Discovery (1992) has Georges Corroface as Columbus with Marlon Brando as Tomás de Torquemada and Tom Selleck as King Ferdinand and Rachel Ward as Queen Isabela. In practice, it was little more than enslavement. [55], The impossibility of the physical presence of the monarch and the necessity of strong royal governance in The Indies resulted in the appointment of viceroys ("vice-kings"), the direct representation of the monarch, in both civil and ecclesiastical spheres. With a hostile indigenous population, no obvious mineral or other exploitable resources, and little strategic value, Chile was a fringe area of colonial Spanish America, hemmed in geographically by the Andes to the east, Pacific Ocean to the west, and indigenous to the south. Spaniards waged a fifty-year war (ca. Spaniards had seen the disappearance of the indigenous populations in the Caribbean, and with that, the disappearance of their main source of wealth, propelling Spaniards to expand their regions of control. The gold the conquistadors sent back to Spain began a Golden Age of imperial expansion, art, architecture, and culture. Among the most notable expeditions are Hernando de Soto into southeast North America, leaving from Cuba (1539-42); Francisco Vázquez de Coronado to northern Mexico (1540-42), and Gonzalo Pizarro to Amazonia, leaving from Quito, Ecuador (1541-42). Since their appointments were for life or the pleasure of the monarch, they had a continuity of power and authority that viceroys and captains-general lacked because of their shorter-term appointments. The Taino population on Hispaniola went from hundreds of thousands or millions –- the estimates by scholars vary widely -- but in the mid-1490s, they were practically wiped out. In southern Central and South America, settlements were founded in Panama (1519); León, Nicaragua (1524); Cartagena (1532); Piura (1532); Quito (1534); Trujillo (1535); Cali (1537) Bogotá (1538); Quito (1534); Cuzco 1534); Lima (1535); Tunja, (1539); Huamanga 1539; Arequipa (1540); Santiago de Chile (1544) and Concepción, Chile (1550). Pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, and chickens allowed Spaniards to eat a diet with which they were familiar. The conquistadors were those men who took up arms to conquer, subjugate, and convert native populations in the New World. European Exploration and Early Americas . Cortés Conquers the Aztecs In the extension of Spanish sovereignty to its overseas territories, authority for expeditions (entradas) of discovery, conquest, and settlement resided in the monarchy. The Americas were invaded and incorporated into the Spanish Empire, with the exception of Brazil, British America, and some small regions in South America and the Caribbean. Spanish veterans from dozens of Europeans battlefields flocked to the New World, bringing their weapons, experience, and tactics with them. They came to the Americas in search of gold and silver. Who Were the Conquistadors? "[117] On the frontier of empire, Indians were seen as sin razón, ("without reason"); non-Indian populations were described as gente de razón ("people of reason"), who could be mixed-race castas or black and had greater social mobility in frontier regions. These governorates, also called as provinces, were the basic of the territorial government of the Indies,[60] and arose as the territories were conquered and colonized. Collier, Simon. The reorganization of administration has been called "a revolution in government. They established the colony of Klein-Venedig in 1528. Francisco de Ibarra led an expedition from Zacatecas in northern New Spain, and founded Durango. There are a number of references to a "title of conquerer". Around 400 Spanish soldiers, 16 mounted soldiers, and 200 native American’s were used for this conquest. [40] In 1561, Pedro de Ursúa led an expedition of some 370 Spanish (including women and children) into Amazonia to search for El Dorado. In the first settlements in the Caribbean, the Spaniards deliberately brought animals and plants that transformed the ecological landscape. They were aggressive in making their investment pay, alienating the indigenous populations and Spaniards alike. Don Martín was sent into exile, while other conspirators were executed. Instituto Bibliográfico Mexicano 1961, Gibson, Charles. The Spanish formed alliances with other native groups who were tired of Aztec rule. One example was Emperor Cuauhtémoc of the Mexica, whose feet were burned by the Spanish to make him tell them where they could find more gold. "[103] As with many colonial institutions, corregimiento had its roots in Castile when the Catholic Monarchs centralize power over municipalities. Until his dying day, Columbus was convinced that he had reached Asia, the Indies. Once established, the conquerors subdued and exploited the local people and the natural resources of each region. Some conquistadors claimed that they were attacking the New World natives to spread Christianity and save the natives from damnation. They were called just Españoles and Españolas, and later being differentiated by the terms indicating place of birth, peninsular for those born in Spain; criollo/criolla or Americano/Ameriana for those born in the Americas. [2], By contrast, the indigenous population plummeted by an estimated 80% in the first century and a half following Columbus's voyages, primarily through the spread of disease, forced labor and slavery for resource extraction, and Missionization. The empire in the Indies was a newly established dependency of the kingdom of Castile alone, so crown power was not impeded by any existing cortes(i.e. He visited the coast of Yucatán and in March 1519 landed at Tabasco in Mexicos Bay of Ca… as Spaniards expanded their control over territories and their indigenous populations. Their role in judicial affairs and in overseeing the implementation of royal legislation made their decisions important for the communities they served." [14] These formal arrangements between Spain and Portugal and the pope were ignored by other European powers. After the King, officers, and other soldiers had all gotten their cut, there was often not much left for the common soldiers. A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who arrived by sailing down the Paraná River from Asunción, now the capital of Paraguay. Cattle multiplied quickly in areas where little else could turn a profit for Spaniards, including northern Mexico and the Argentine pampas. Velázquez, the governor of Cuba, later rescinded the order, and Cortés sailed without permission. The indigenous peoples of Chile, whom the Spaniards called Araucanians, fiercely resisted Spanish, and south of the Bío-Bío River, the Mapuche dominated the region. These began a movement for colonial independence that spread to Spain's other colonies in the Americas. document, giving permission to start a colony. ... and dancers. There was some bureaucracy involved, as well. Columbus made four voyages to the West Indies as the monarchs granted Columbus vast powers of governance over this unknown part of the world. [91][92] The history of the Guaraní has also been the subject of a recent study. Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada was the leading conquistador with his brother Hernán second in command. [19], The first mainland explorations by Spaniards were followed by a phase of inland expeditions and conquest. The two main areas of Spanish settlement after 1550 were Mexico and Peru, the sites of the Aztec and Inca indigenous civilizations. As with many other royal posts, these positions were sold, starting in 1677. Brown, Kendall W., "The Spanish Imperial Mercury Trade and the American Mining Expansion Under the Bourbon Monarchy," in, Van Ausdal, Shawn, and Robert W. Wilcox. [85] Indigenous noblemen were particularly important in the early period of colonization, since the economy of the encomienda was initially built on the extraction of tribute and labor from the commoners in their communities. Five hundred Spaniards did not topple the Aztec Empire alone. Virtually all expeditions after the Columbus voyages, which were funded by the crown of Castile, were done at the expense of the leader of the expedition and its participants. "Nicolás de Ovando" in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGóngora1998 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFLagos_Carmona1985 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHistoria_general_de_España1992 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFChipman2005 (, sfnm error: no target: CITEREFChipman2005 (. Expeditions continued into the 1540s and regional capitals founded by the 1550s. [142] 1492: The Conquest of Paradise stars Gerard Depardieu as Columbus and Sigorney Weaver as Queen Isabel. American-born elite men complained bitterly about the change, since they lost access to power that they had enjoyed for nearly a century.[100]. [121] The Jesuits resisted crown control, refusing to pay the tithe on their estates that supported the ecclesiastical hierarchy and came into conflict with bishops. The word conquistador comes from Spanish and means "he who conquers." Although implementation was slow and incomplete, it was an assertion of royal power over the clergy and the quality of parish priests improved, since the Ordenanza mandated competitive examination to fill vacant positions. 87-88. In the New World, at least, they were more like mercenaries. Queen Isabel was the first monarch that laid the first stone for the protection of the indigenous peoples in her testament in which the Catholic monarch prohibited the enslavement of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The crown established the audiencia in 1549. During the conquest of Mexico, Cortes ordered a massacre of Cholulan noblemen. "The Bourbon Reforms" in, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEncyclopedia_of_Latin_American_History_and_Culture1996 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBedini1992 (, Cook, Noble David. The Spanish soldiers who conquered the Americas were called "Conquistadors" which means "conquerers" in Spanish since they would come in and pillage native territory in search for gold. 1, pp. They were organized by units. He was the only son of noble, though not wealthy, parents. [102] This direct correspondence of the Audiencia with the Council of the Indies made it possible for the Council to give the Audiencia direction on general aspects of government.[99]. 84-85. Spalding, Karen. Queen Isabel put an end to formal slavery, declaring the indigenous to be vassals of the crown, but Spaniards' exploitation continued. 1531); Guadalajara (1531-42); Valladolid (now Morelia), (1529-41); Antequera (now Oaxaca(1525-29); Campeche (1541); and Mérida. In 1500 the city of Nueva Cádiz was founded on the island of Cubagua, Venezuela, followed by the founding of Santa Cruz by Alonso de Ojeda in present-day Guajira peninsula. Puerto Rico continues to be a possession of the United States, now officially continues as a self-governing unincorporated territory. The veedor, or overseer, position quickly disappeared in most jurisdictions, subsumed into the position of factor. They also imported cane sugar, which was a high-value crop in early Spanish America. In 1898, the United States achieved victory in the Spanish–American War with Spain, ending the Spanish colonial era. The Viceroyalty of Perú was established in 1542. Gold existed in only small amounts, and the indigenous peoples died off in massive numbers. Effective Spanish settlement began in 1493, when Columbus brought livestock, seeds, agricultural equipment. "Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. The other was the presence or absence of an exploitable resource for the enrichment of settlers. Only months later, Cortes' lieutenant Pedro De Alvarado would do the same thing in Tenochtitlan. Held in the Colegio de San Gregorio, in the Spanish city of Valladolid, it was a moral and theological debate about the colonization of the Americas, its justification for the conversion to Catholicism and more specifically about the relations between the European settlers and the natives of the New World. In 1542 Las Casas wrote a damning account of this genocide, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. New York: Cambridge University Press 1994. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBrading1971 (, Kuethe, Allan J. They were free to join any expedition they wanted to and could theoretically leave at any time, although they tended to see things through. In Hispaniola, the indigenous Taíno pre-contact population before the arrival of Columbus of several hundred thousand had declined to sixty thousand by 1509. Silver was the bonanza the Spaniards sought. During the Bourbon era, even when the crown systematically appointed peninsular-born Spaniards to royal posts rather than American-born, the cabildos remained in the hands of local elites. There was surface gold found in early islands, and holders of encomiendas put the indigenous to work panning for it. [3][4] [5][6][1] This has been argued to be the first large-scale act of genocide in the modern era. Although the structure of the indigenous cabildo looked similar to that of the Spanish institution, its indigenous functionaries continued to follow indigenous practices. These explorers were known as conquistadors, orconquerors. [83] A similar legal apparatus was set up in Lima.[84]. The region overseen by the archbishop was divided into large units, the diocese, headed by a bishop. Charles sought to be elected Holy Roman Emperor and was willing to pay whatever it took to achieve that. These were often led by secondary leaders, such as Pedro de Alvarado. [42] The crown later sent him to Asunción, Paraguay to be adelantado there. 5, p. 453. The most prominent example is in Puebla, Mexico, when Bishop Juan de Palafox y Mendoza was driven from his bishopric by the Jesuits. Unlike Spanish expansion in the Caribbean, which involved limited armed combat and sometimes the participation of indigenous allies, the conquest of central Mexico was protracted and necessitated indigenous allies who chose to participate for their own purposes. Firstly, the Spaniards got help from the local tribes in the conquest. 5, p. 253. He was driven from his home by the thousands, starved, beaten, raped, and murdered with impunity. Terraciano, Kevin. From that misperception the Spanish called the indigenous peoples of the Americas, "Indians" (indios), lumping a multiplicity of civilizations, groups, and individuals into a single category of The Other. There were also sub-treasuries at important ports and mining districts. Spaniards found the bonanza they long sought: great material wealth. Once the Spanish settlement in the Caribbean occurred, Spain and Portugal formalized a division of the world between them in the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. The Kingdom of Portugal authorized a series of voyages down the coast of Africa and when they rounded the southern tip, were able to sail to India and further east. The First Gun In America Guns and America were born around the same time and grew up together. Vol. Spalding, Karen. The word conquistador appears to have entered English from Spanish. A checkerboard pattern radiated outward. The first expansion of territory was the conquest of the Muslim Kingdom of Granada on January 1, 1492, the culmination of the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian peninsula, held by the Muslims since 711. According to Cook, the indigenous Californian population at first contact, in 1769, was about 310,000 and had dropped to 25,000 by 1910. [57] Later ecclesiastics served as interim viceroys, general inspectors (visitadores), and other high posts. Far more famous now is Lope de Aguirre, who led a mutiny against Ursúa, who was murdered. [113], Most Spanish settlers came to the Indies as permanent residents, established families and businesses, and sought advancement in the colonial system, such as membership of cabildos, so that they were in the hands of local, American-born (crillo) elites. According to the French historian Jean Dumont The Valladolid debate was a major turning point in world history “In that moment in Spain appeared the dawn of the human rights”. [89][90] For the Andean area, there are an increasing number of publications as well. Since in central and southern Mexico (Mesoamerica) and the highland Andes indigenous peoples had existing traditions of payment of tribute and required labor service, the Spanish could tap into these existing to extract wealth. The governors exercised judicial ordinary functions of first instance, and prerogatives of government legislating by ordinances. Prominent Dominican friars in Santo Domingo, especially Antonio de Montesinos and Bartolomé de Las Casas denounced the maltreatment and pressed the crown to act to protect the indigenous populations. An encomienda was land given to a conquistador, usually with natives already living there. Conquistadors came from all over Europe. ... of indigenous people who died in the Spanish conquest of the New World. All of the colonies, except Cuba and Puerto Rico, attained independence by the 1820s. He is a former head writer at VIVA Travel Guides. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was one of four survivors of that expedition, writing an account of it. [51] In southern Chile and the pampas, the Araucanians (Mapuche) prevented further Spanish expansion. For all practical purposes, this was slavery. The historical record abounds in examples of conquistadors murdering and tormenting native populations, and these horrors are far too numerous to list here. Even though Castile and Aragon were ruled jointly by their respective monarchs, they remained separate kingdoms so that when the Catholic Monarchs gave official approval for the plans for Columbus’s voyage to reach "the Indies" by sailing West, the funding came from the queen of Castile. Depending on the conditions in a jurisdiction, the position of factor/veedor was often eliminated, as well. ocabanga44 and 2 more users found this answer helpful 5.0 (1 vote) Zumárraga was reprimanded for his actions as exceeding his authority. In the twentieth century, Garatuza's life was the subject of a 1935 film[154] and a 1986 telenovela, Martín Garatuza. They were called Conquistadors. [35], Venezuela was first visited by Europeans during the 1490s, when Columbus was in control of the region, and the region as a source for indigenous slaves for Spaniards in Cuba and Hispaniola, since the Spanish destruction of the local indigenous population. Spanish conquerors holding grants of indigenous labor in encomienda ruthlessly exploited them. Survivors continued to travel among indigenous groups in the North American south and southwest until 1536. The Nahuas after the Conquest. It was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting to subdue the mightiest empire in the Americas. He then founded the settlement of Isabela on the island they named Hispaniola (now divided into Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Many of them were veteran professional soldiers who had fought for Spain in other wars, like the reconquest of the Moors (1482-1492) or the "Italian Wars" (1494-1559). That expedition was to make world history. ", Weber, David J. “The Spanish Borderlands, Historiography Redux.”, Spanish Exploration and Conquest of North America, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 16:36. They replicated the existing indigenous network of settlements, but added a port city. 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Were imported to Europe word what were the spanish soldiers who conquered the americas called comes from Spanish and means `` he who Conquers. typical tactic warfare...

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